Bushong SC, Clarke GD. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical and Biological Principles, 4th edition St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2015. 513 p.
Valaparla SK,Gao F, Abdul-Ghani M, Clarke GD. Intramyocellular Lipid dependence on skeletal muscle fiber type and orientation characterized by diffusion tensor imaging and 1H-MRS 2014 Mar. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2041728 When muscle fibers are aligned with the B0 field, intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), important for providing energy during physical activity, can be resolved in proton magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS). Various muscles of the leg differ significantly in their proportion of fibers and angular distribution. This study determined the influence of muscle fiber type and orientation on IMCL using 1H-MRS and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Muscle fiber orientation relative to B0 was estimated by pennation angle (PA) measurements from DTI, providing orientation-specific extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) chemical shift data that were used for subject-specific IMCL quantification. Vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO) muscles of 6 healthy subjects (21-40 yrs) were studied on a Siemens 3T MRI system with a flex 4-channel coil. 1H-MRS were acquired using stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM, TR=3s, TE=270ms). DTI was performed using single shot EPI (b=600s/mm2, 30 directions, TR=4.5s, TE=82ms, and ten?5mm slices) with center slice indexed to the MRS voxel. The average PA?s measured from ROI analysis of primary eigenvectors were PA=19.46?5.43 for unipennate VL, 15.65?3.73 for multipennate SO, and 7.04?3.34 for bipennate TA. Chemical shift (CS) was calculated using [3cos2θ-1] dependence: 0.17?0.02 for VL, 0.18?0.01 for SO and 0.19?0.004 ppm for TA. IMCL-CH2 concentrations from spectral analysis were 12.77?6.3 for VL, 3.07?1.63 for SO and 0.27?0.08 mmol/kg ww for TA. Small PA?s were measured in TA and large CS with clear separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks were observed. Larger variations in PA were measured VL and SO resulting in an increased overlap of the EMCL on IMCL peaks.
Kuo AD, Li C, Huber HF, Schwab M, Nathanielsz PW, Clarke GD. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy and lactation leads to impaired right ventricular function in young adult baboons Journal of Physiology 2017 Apr;. Kuo AK, Li J, Li C, Huber HF, Schwab M, Nathanielsz PW, Clarke GD. Prenatal steroid administration leads to adult pericardial and hepatic steatosis in male baboons International Journal of Obesity (Lond) 2017 Apr;. Franke K, Clarke GD, Dahnke R, Gaser C, Kuo AH, Li C, Schwab M, Nathanielsz PW. Premature Brain Aging in Baboons Resulting from Moderate Fetal Undernutrition Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 2017 Apr;9(92). Kuo AK, Li C, Li J, Huber HF, Nathanielsz PW, Clarke GD. Cardiac Remodeling in a Baboon Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Mimics Accelerated Aging The Journal of Physiology 2017 Feb;595(4):1093-1110. McGuire SA, Boone GR, Sherman PM, Tate DF, Wood JD, Patel B, Eskandar G, Wijtenburg SA, Rowland LM, Clarke GD, Grogan PM. White Matter Integrity in High-Altitude Pilots Exposed to Hypobaria Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance 2016 Dec;87(12):983-988. Malloy KE, Li JQ, Choudhury GR, Torres A, Gupta S, Kantorak C, Goble T, Fox PT, Clarke GD, Daadi MM. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Delivery of Neural Stem Cells Into the Basal Ganglia of Nonhuman Primates Reveals a Pulsatile Mode of Cell Dispersion Stem Cells Transl Med 2016 Oct;(0269):877-885. DeFronzo RA, Chilton R, Norton L, Clarke G, Ryder RE, Abdul-Ghani M. Revitalization of Pioglitazone: The Optimal Agent to be Combined with an SGLT2 Inhibitor Diabetes Obes Metab 2016 Feb;. Papanikolaou N, Clarke GD, Watts LT, Maris, Thomas G, Pappas, Evangelos. MRI in Clinical Radiation Oncology: Dosimetry and Patient-Specific Plan Verification Magnetom World 2016 Jan;65(2):66-71. Valaparla SK, Gao F, Daniele G, Abdul-Ghanni M, Clarke GD. Fiber orientation measurements by diffusion tensor imaging improve hydrogen-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intramyocellular lipids in human leg muscles Journal of Medical Imaging 2015 Jun;2(2):1-9. Prisciandaro JI, Willis CE, Burmeister JW, Clarke GD, Das RK, Esthappan J, Gerbi BJ, Harkness BA, Patton JA, Peck DJ, Pizzutiello RJ, Sandison GA, White SL, Wichman BD, Ibbott GS, Both S. Essentials and guidelines for clinical medical physics residency training programs: executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249 J Appl Clin Med Phys 2014 May;15(3):4763-4763. Daniele G, Eldor R, Merovci A, Clarke GD, Xiong J, Tripathy D, Taranova A, Abdul-Ghani M, Defronzo RA. Chronic Reduction of Plasma FFA Improves Mitochondrial Function and Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity in Obese and Type 2 Diabetic Individuals Diabetes 2014 Jan;63(8):2812-2820. Goerner F, Clarke GD. Measuring Signal to Noise Ratio in Partially Parallel Imaging MRI Medical Physics 2011 Sep;38(9):5049-5057. KasraieN, Oviatt HW, Clarke GD. On the Use of Molecular Weight Cutoff Cassettes to Measure Dynamic Relaxivity of Novel Gadolinium Contrast Agents: Example using Hyaluronic Acid Polymer Complexes in Phosphate Buffered Saline Radiology Research and Practice 2011 Jan;2011.
Clarke GD. Book Review: The Essential Physics of the Medical Imaging, 3rd edition Radiology 2015 Jan;274(1):64-65. Drost DJ
CLARKE GD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the brain: Report of AAPM MR task group #9 Medical Physics 2002 Sep;29(9):2177-2197. Price RR, Allison J, Massoth RJ, CLARKE GD, Drost DJ. Practical aspects of functional MRI (NMR Task Group #8) Med Phys 2002 Aug;29(8):1892-1912.